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*   What is Sudden Cardiac Arrest ?  SCA is the condition in which the electrical system to the heart  malfunctions, resulting in a disruption of the heart’s normal
    rhythm and the loss of its ability to  deliver blood to th
e body. If untreated, this abrupt disruption results in sudden death.

*    Is a Sudden Cardiac Arrest the same as a heart attack?  NO
  • SCA occurs when the heart suddenly stops pumping blood through the body owing to a glitch in the heart’s electrical system. The heart enters an abnormal rhythm, known as ventricular fibrillation, in which the heart muscles twitch or quiver but do not beat. The patient will collapse without warning and is unresponsive.
  • A heart attack occurs when a blocked blood vessel disrupts blood flow to the heart, resulting in an area of dead heart muscle. Throughout a heart attack, the heart usually continues beating normally. The patient commonly has chest pain, shortness of breath, racing heart, etc and they generally remain conscious and responsive throughout the event.   (Johns Hopkins Medicine)
*   A student heart screening consists of:
a medical history review
       -  a physical examination by a cardiologist
       -  a blood pressure check
       -  an electrocardiogram / EKG / ECG
       -  studies of the causes of sudden death in athletes and their relative frequencies suggest that
          at least 70% of those individuals at risk (because of preexisting disorders)  can be identified
          or suspected by findings on a screening ECG.
       -  an echocardiogram / ultrasound of the heart, if needed

*   The American Academy of Pediatrics has estimated that every year in the United States, approximately 2,000 patients younger than 25 years
die of SCA. (Please read full report here.)

There is no "National Registry" of Sudden Cardiac deaths in children. We can only count the children whose death is determined by their physician. 

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Sudden cardiac arrest in a young person usually stems from a structural defect in the heart or a problem with its electrical circuitry.

The most frequent cause, accounting for about 40 percent of all cases, is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or HCM, a thickening of the heart muscle. The problem is that those who are at risk are hard to spot. Warning signs, like dizziness and shortness of breath, can be rare or dismissed by young athletes use to overworking themselves.

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